Systemic Racism: Is It Based On An Inadequate Analogy?

Photo by Clay Banks on Unsplash

In 1967 Stokely Carmichael and Charles V. Hamilton coined the term “institutional racism” in their book Black Power. The authors stated: Racism takes two forms. Individual racism, individual whites acting against individual blacks, and institutional racism, acts by the total white community against the black community. The second type originates in the operation of established and respected…



J. Pharoah Doss is a columnist for the New Pittsburgh Courier.

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